Procedurality refers to “a way of creating, explaining, or understanding processes, whereas rhetoric is “effective and persuasive expression” (Bogost 2007: 3). Procedural rhetoric can then be described as the practice of using processes persuasively. When applied to a system such as videogames, procedurality refers to the philosophy of building rhetoric that is persuasive and expressive through the interaction of the players with a game. As procedural rhetoric strictly adheres to the procedures of a game, proceduralists believe that the meanings within a game can be expressive and persuasive without having to rely on other forms of rhetoric such as textual and visual rhetoric (Bogost 2007). In Braid, the main procedure is the ability to rewind time. Each World has its own unique time-based game mechanic, with each procedure involving the manipulation of time composing a system designed using procedurality, and therefore function as the primary method of delivering Braid’s rhetoric – time and regret (Bogost 2009).


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